38. Scott, Phallic Worship, p. 105. For more references about the effectiveness of the phallus against the evil

eye see Burke, Structure and History, p. 40; and Bonfante, Erruscan, p. 102. The phallic signal was common over a
blacksmith’s forge in Italy in order to protect the horses that came to him to be shod since the horses were
Specially liable to malign influence; so the smith naturally supplied the finest possible protection for the horses
by which he got his living. [See George Dennis, Ciries and Cemeteries of Etruria, (London, 1907), 2:119]. In
Rome, Fascinus, later identified with the foreign god Priapus, was an incredibly ancient god and was signified under
the form of a phallus. It was considered his chief responsibility was to avert http://modestperson.com/views/there-was-a-water-park-theme-park-that-i-used-to-attend-many-years-ago.php and bad spirits. Successful generals had the
image of Fascinus before their cars in their victorious march in Rome in order to be shielded against the evil eye
(see E.R.E., S.V. “Phallism”). In the archaic Shinto religion of Japan the phallus was a holy thing and was
offered at village shrines of the rice state to avert calamity including famine or disease (see Rawson, Crude
Sensual Artwork, p. 72). On the island of Nias when a disease has broken out, then strange and frightful bodies with
Outstanding big organs of sex are set up to frighten away the evil spirit causing the affliction (E.R.E., S.V.
“Phallism”).
39. J. G. R. Forlong, Rivers of Life (London, 1883) I: 189; Rawson, Primitive Erotic Art, p. 76. The signs
shows that in some events the phallus and its symbolism aren’t apotropaic but instead to procure fecundity. A quite
common characteristic in the Dionysaic service was the “phallophoria,” the taking round of the figure in wood
of the male sexual organ, a rite which is a kind of the magic of fertilization. A similar ritual has been observed to
be still performed by the Greek Christians in the neighbourhood of Visa, the old Bizye, the capital of the old
Thracian kings. [See R. M. Dawkins, “The Modern Carnival in Thrace and the Cult of Dionysus,” Journal of
Hellenic Studies 26 (1906): 191-206; Farnell, Cults of the Greek Stares. 5: 1071. For more on the origin of the
“phallophoria” see Henri Auguste Couat, Arisrophane et I’Ancienne Comedie Attique, (Paris, 1902), pp. 182,276,
381. Similar phallic processions were and in some cases still are performed in http://modestperson.com/views/my-first-nude-experience-was-when-i-was-younger.php to remove barrenness and
Safe fertility. In certain processions in honour of Legba in the Slave Coast of West Africa, the phallus is borne
aloft with great pomp, fastened to the end of a long pole, something that reminds us of the “phallophoria”
described by Aristophanes. (For references in honour of Legba see Ellis, Ewe-Talking. p. 44). A similar phallic

228

Origin of Nudity in Greek Athletics
The value of the human body and its symbolism as an incarnation of
energy and electricity has been highlighted by many writers. Kenneth Clark noted
that “it was the Greeks, by their idealization of man, who turned the person
body into an incarnation of energy.” Additionally,
The Greeks discovered in the nude two embodiments of energy, which lived on
throughout European artwork almost until our own time. They are the sportsman and the
hero; and from the beginning they were closely linked with one another. 40
It really is likely that the early Greek warrior-athlete or hero-sportsman believed that
his nudity acted as a screen which safeguarded him from many evils and at the same
time supplied him with power and energy for his duties.
This belief in the nudity of the warrior-athlete was concentrated on Heracles,
the hero in whose honour the games at Olympia may have been held until Zeus
was brought there and took over the Olympic festival. There is, indeed, a close
connection between Heracles and this sort of nudity. Enough evidence exists to
Reveal that Heracles’ aboriginal aspect was warlike and brave. Both substance
and literary sources suggest that Heracles initially appeared as a warrior. The
most primitive figures uncovered at Olympia represent naked warriors equipped with
large helmets, little shields, and spears. These helmeted statues that may
represent Heracles were votive offerings of the successful athletes dedicated to
him, and took the form of the hero. In a later age, the votive offerings of

Olympia frequently took the form of the Olympian-Zeus in whose honour subsequently the
Olympic Games were held.41
Heracles has been “traditionally a nude hero”42 and he seems naked in many
vase renderings and other artifacts of the 7th century and early 6th century.
Occasionally he appears naked and lightly armed fighting against enemies.43
Heracles appears naked in the temple of Zeus at Olympia in the metope of the
Cretan Bull. Gardiner believed this narrative is old and that nakedness by the
artist without any support from tradition is not feasible. Again, the same
can be said of the scene in the metope where Heracles appears nude receiving
44
from Atlas the apples of the Hesperides. At Corinth, we learn from Pausanias

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